What Do the Testes Do?


What do the testes do? These organs are an essential part of the male reproductive system, producing testosterone, a hormone that promotes the production of sperm and promotes the development of larger muscles. The testes produce more testosterone as men reach puberty, causing deeper voices, gaining more body hair, and stimulating the production of sperm. But what do the testes do in adulthood?

Sperm production occurs in the testes, which are composed of several lobes lined with seminiferous tubules. These tubes contain germ cells, which eventually mature into sperm. As the sperm develops, it travels through the seminiferous tubules and efferent ducts, and from there, it moves to the vas deferens. The sperm then exit the vas through the urethra.

The testes are supplied with blood by the paired testicular arteries, which arise from the anterolateral segment of the abdominal aorta and descend retroperitoneally. These arteries eventually join with the spermatic cord, passing through the inguinal canal. The testes receive additional blood supply from the vas deferens and cremasteric artery. The appendix testis is located at the cranial end of the paramesonephric duct and is found in about 2% of testes.

The testes are covered with tough fibrous tissue, called the tunica vaginalis, and the tunica albuginea. Each testis is divided into 200 to 400 wedge-shaped lobes with three to 10 coiled tubes inside. These seminiferous tubes produce sperm cells and eventually exit through the vas deferens. When a male ejaculates, the seminiferous tubules are released into the ejaculate fluid.