Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate, which is an energy-rich chemical. The process is a multistep process, involving 14 different enzymes. Enzymes undergo 5 basic regulatory processes, including localization and post-translational modifications. By understanding these processes, you can gain insight into glycolysis. The pathways are outlined in the following figure. There are two main types of glycolysis.
The first step in glycolysis is the conversion of glucose into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. This step involves the removal of high-energy electrons from glucose. The electrons are then transported to the electron carrier NAD+. NADH is produced from glycolysis. The second step, phosphorylation, occurs with a sugar called pyruvate. Unlike glucose, PEP can be converted into pyruvate without another ATP molecule.
The next step, Krebs cycle, takes place in the mitochondrial matrix of eukaryotic cells. The second step, which is called glycolysis, produces two molecules of pyruvate, four molecules of ATP, and two molecules of NADH. Both phases of glycolysis occur in eukaryotic cells, but glycolysis is not present in prokaryotic cells. Hence, it is important to understand glycolysis to gain insight into the mechanisms of the body’s energy metabolism.
Embden and Meyerhof first proposed a detailed pathway for glycolysis in the 1930s. Then they combined these steps and created a complete pathway for glycolysis. The pathway has been further refined and expanded as time goes by, integrating other metabolic pathways. Its purpose is to create energy in the cells. Once the energy-rich process is complete, the cell will have a steady supply of energy. However, it is important to find alternative sources of anaerobically oxidizable substrates.